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基督教的最后总结(关于《达芬奇密码》)

作者:Frence Toler

 

我一直不否认是那本叫《达芬奇密码》小说引起了我对基督教历史和理论的兴趣。学习和研究的过程并非出于信仰本身,更多的是想更真切的了解那段历史以及实现对基督教教义更好的理解。整个过程中参考了马克斯韦伯、费尔巴哈、GF穆尔的相关著作,并很幸运的找到了Gospel of Thomas ,Mary, Judas等未收录于圣经中的早期福音著述的英文版本。写作本文并不想制造什么惊人的结论,唯一的结论也只是想表达一个观点:他们所信仰的,应该是基督或者上帝本身,而不是所谓的经典。

 

1.埋没的真相

《达芬奇的密码》故事所围绕的核心内容是关于“圣杯”的解释,即圣杯其实是指抹大拿的玛利亚,亦即JESUS的妻子。但尼西亚会议通过的圣经为证明JESUS的神性将关于她的一切抹去,并千方百计想找到她的遗骸及JESUS的后人以加以毁灭。但有一个叫崤山隐修会的组织一直暗中保护JESUS的后人及圣杯……

玛利亚是否真的就是JESUS的妻子呢?

(1)最后晚餐故事中的线索

所谓达芬奇的密码其实是指达芬奇在《最后晚餐》画作中所透露的玛利亚真实存在的线索(如下图)。从这张图中,JESUS身边所坐的是一位女士当没有疑问。

   

然而我们观察早期的同类题材的画作,除达芬奇以外, 其他很多画家似乎都想在画作中表达类似的暗示,即最后的晚餐中,坐在JESUS身边,并倒在JESUS怀中的是抹大拿的玛利亚,即JESUS的妻子。(如下图,作者为吉兰达约)

 

但显然这种表达是很隐晦且也尽量做到符合圣经的内容。

因为在约翰福音中当JESUS告诉他的门徒们有人要出卖他时“Now there was leaning on Jesus' bosom one of his disciples, whom Jesus loved”。有一个耶稣所爱的门徒倒在了他的怀中,

那他(她)是谁呢?

 

(2)早期典籍中的答案

 

多马福音据传是JESUS的门徒多马所著的JESUS生前的言语录,成书早于圣经四福音。在这部福音中有以下对话:(114) Simon Peter said to him, "Let Mary leave us, for women are not worthy of life." Jesus said, "I myself shall lead her in order to make her male, so that she too may become a living spirit resembling you males. For every woman who will make herself male will enter the kingdom of heaven."

圣彼得似乎对玛利亚一直心怀不满,这点在达芬奇和吉兰达约的画作中就有体现(耶稣坐手边很生气的老人即是圣彼得)

 

腓力福音,虽然没有找到《达芬奇的密码》中引用过的话,但有以下文字:Some said, "Mary conceived by the Holy Spirit." They are in error. They do not know what they are saying. When did a woman ever conceive by a woman? Mary is the virgin whom no power defiled. She is a great anathema to the Hebrews, who are the apostles and the apostolic men. This virgin whom no power defiled

可以看出JESUS对玛利亚是极为赞赏和信任的,JESUS死后将教会交由玛利亚掌管也是极为可能的。

 

the Gospel of Mary,玛利亚的福音,有必要全部引用下,见加粗的文字:

[The Coptic papyrus, from which the first six pages have been lost, begins in the middle of this gospel.]

"...will, then, matter be saved or not?"

The Savior said, "All natures, all formed things, all creatures exist in and with one another and will again be resolved into their own roots, because the nature of matter is dissolved into the roots of its nature alone. He who has ears to hear, let him hear." [cf. Matt. 11:15, etc.].

Peter said to him, "Since you have now explained all things to us, tell us this: what is the sin of the world?" [cf. John 1:29]. The Savior said, "Sin as such does not exist, but you make sin when you do what is of the nature of fornication, which is called 'sin.' For this reason the Good came into your midst, to the essence of each nature, to restore it to its root." He went on to say, "For this reason you come into existence and die [...] whoever knows may know [...] a suffering which has nothing like itself, which has arisen out of what is contrary to nature. Then there arises a disturbance in the whole body. For this reason I said to you, Be of good courage [cf. Matt. 28:9], and if you are discouraged, still take courage over against the various forms of nature. He who has ears to hear, let him hear." When the Blessed One said this, he greeted all of them, saying "Peace be with you [cf. John 14:27]. Receive my peace for yourselves. Take heed lest anyone lead you astray with the words, 'Lo, here!' or 'Lo, there!' [cf. Matt. 24:5, 23; Luke 17:21] for the Son of Man is within you [cf. Luke 17:21]. Follow him; those who seek him will find him [cf. Matt. 7:7]. Go, therefore, and preach the Gospel of the Kingdom [cf. Matt. 4:23; 9:15; Mark 16:15]. I have left no commandment but what I have commanded you, and I have given you no law, as the lawgiver did, lest you be bound by it."

They grieved and mourned greatly, saying, "How shall we go to the Gentiles and preach the Gospel of the Kingdom of the Son of Man? If even he was not spared, how shall we be spared?"

Then Mary stood up and greeted all of them and said to her brethren, "Do not mourn or grieve or be irresolute, for his grace will be with you all and will defend you. Let us rather praise his greatness, for he prepared us and made us into men." When Mary said this, their hearts changed for the better, and they began to discuss the words of the [Savior].

Peter said to Mary, "Sister, we know that the Savior loved you more than other women [cf. John 11:5, Luke 10:38-42]. Tell us the words of the Savior which you have in mind since you know them; and we do not, nor have we heard of them."

Mary answered and said, "What is hidden from you I will impart to you." And she began to say the following words to them. "I," she said, "I saw the Lord in a vision and I said to him, 'Lord, I saw you today in a vision.' He answered and said to me, 'Blessed are you, since you did not waver at the sight of me. For where the mind is, there is your countenance' [cf. Matt. 6:21]. I said to him, 'Lord, the mind which sees the vision, does it see it through the soul or through the spirit?' The Savior answered and said, 'It sees neither through the soul nor through the spirit, but the mind, which is between the two, which sees the vision, and it is...'"

"...and Desire said, 'I did not see you descend; but now I see you rising. Why do you speak falsely, when you belong to me?' The soul answered and said, 'I saw you, but you did not see me or recognize me; I served you as a garment and you did not recognize me.' After it had said this, it went joyfully and gladly away. Again it came to the third power, Ignorance. This power questioned the soul: 'Whither are you going? You were bound in wickedness, you were bound indeed. Judge not' [cf. Matt. 7:1]. And the soul said, 'Why do you judge me, when I judged not? I was bound, though I did not bind. I was not recognized, but I recognized that all will go free, things both earthly and heavenly.' After the soul had left the third power behind, it rose upward, and saw the fourth power, which had seven forms. The first form is darkness, the second desire, the third ignorance, the fourth the arousing of death, the fifth is the kingdom of the flesh, the sixth is the wisdom of the folly of the flesh, the seventh is wrathful wisdom. These are the seven participants in wrath. They ask the soul, 'Whence do you come, killer of men, or where are you going, conqueror of space?' The soul answered and said, 'What seizes me is killed; what turns me about is overcome; my desire has come to an end and ignorance is dead. In a world I was saved from a world, and in a "type," from a higher "type" and from the fetter of the impotence of knowledge, the existence of which is temporal. From this time I will reach rest in the time of the moment of the Aeon in silence.'"

When Mary had said this, she was silent, since the Savior had spoken thus far with her. But Andrew answered and said to the brethren, 'Say what you think concerning what she said. For I do not believe that the Savior said this. For certainly these teachings are of other ideas."

Peter also opposed her in regard to these matters and asked them about the Savior. "Did he then speak secretly with a woman [cf. John 4:27], in preference to us, and not openly? Are we to turn back and all listen to her? Did he prefer her to us?" Then Mary grieved and said to Peter, "My brother Peter, what do you think? Do you think that I thought this up myself in my heart or that I am lying concerning the Savior?"

Levi answered and said to Peter, "Peter, you are always irate. Now I see that you are contending against the woman like the adversaries. But if the Savior made her worthy, who are you to reject her? Surely the Savior knew her very well [cf. Luke 10:38- 42]. For this reason he loved her more than us [cf. John 11:5]. And we should rather be ashamed and put on the Perfect Man, to form us [?] as he commanded us, and proclaim the gospel, without publishing a further commandment or a further law than the one which the Savior spoke." When Levi had said this, they began to go out in order to proclaim him and preach him

证明到这里我想玛利亚作为耶稣的门徒的真实性应该是没有疑问的,但是否是他的妻子我并没有找到证明的材料。

  

2.无谓的惊恐

在我看来,《达芬奇密码》的畅销远非所谓的情节和悬疑,它提供给人的是一种对传统信仰的颠覆,它契合了人们虔诚祈祷却仍遭受生活挫折而产生的信仰危机。很多人已经开始怀疑自己的信仰的正确性,而《密码》的出现却给了人们质疑圣经新约可信性的确认。这显然是天主教会所无法容忍的。

今天是《达芬奇密码》全球首映日。本以为能看到梵地冈的抗议,但首先看到的却是“中国天主教呼吁抵制好莱坞电影《达-芬奇密码》”(http://news.sohu.com/20060518/n243299760.shtml)刘柏年先生要求:教众要多做祈祷,通过祈祷坚固自己的信仰,驱除诱惑,更加坚信十二段的当信的道理。

首先,需要明确的是,教徒所信仰的是基督和上帝。圣经也好,所谓的“十二段当信道理”也好,只是教徒认识JESUS,认识其思想,认识基督教教义的工具。他们通过阅读圣经以达到增强内心确信,做符合基督要求的行为,从而坚定自己对基督、对上帝的信仰。因此如果将圣经的字面内容作为不可违背的真理,以信仰圣经字面内容取代对基督、上帝的崇拜,显然是犯了以手段替代目的的错误,也显然是与基督教的教义相违背的。

其次,即使圣经新约的内容真的与真实存在差异,仍不会动摇JESUS在信徒心中的伟大和超然。JESUS是凡人也好,是先知也好,是上帝之子也好,是低一位的神也好,他的言语和思想都一样的光辉。

再次,作为教会而言,它现今的作用只在于带给人希望,听取人的忏悔,更好的解释基督教的教义。教会应当脱离于世俗的世界,而不能还想着对其他国家进行干涉(如不久前梵地冈干涉中国教区主教的选任)。惊恐于所谓的信仰的危机,其实是惊恐于失去世俗的利益。梵地冈可以如此,但中国的教会绝对不应如此。

 

3、基督教的最后总结

对于宗教信仰而言,愿望的实现其实是通过两个前提:

其一是有神灵存在的确认,其二是通过实施神认为正确的言行获得神灵的庇佑

也就是说,信仰者通过内心的行为模式选择实现与另一个世界的沟通

JESUS期望人们有一种谦卑、博爱而宽容的精神。然而即使没有,只要诚心的忏悔,依然可以得到上帝的宽恕。

JESUS所真正期待人们真正信仰和敬畏的,应该是上帝而不是他自身。

JESUS认为人能获得的救赎,是在另一个世界中获得的恩典,而非我们所在世界的愿望满足。

其实行为模式的选择是与相信神灵存在相分离的。信仰与否只在于一个内心的确认,唯物与唯心没有对与错之分。

对于没有信仰的我而言,淳朴而自然的虔敬,纯洁而正直的生活,对一切人无私的善意,无论善与恶。这即是JESUS认为的上帝对人所要求的品质,也是我应恪守的行为规范。

 

多马福音:

http://www.gnosis.org/naghamm/gthlamb.html

玛利亚福音:

http://reluctant-messenger.com/gospel-magdalene.htm

 

 

Frence Toler

2006.5.19

(本坛编者按,本文仅代表作者本人观点。不妨作为百家争鸣的声音之一。欢迎不同见解者就相关话题自由地展开讨论。)

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