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对中国政府在曲阜于庄村建造哥特式大教堂计划的反应
梅尔•斯图尔特 著 吴万伟 译
来源:《儒家邮报》
 

《儒家邮报》编者按:此信件系由梅尔•斯图尔特(Melville Y. Stewart)寄给《儒家邮报》编辑部,原稿是英文,我们特委托吴万伟先生翻译成中文,在此,对吴万伟先生表示感谢。
 
作者简介:梅尔•斯图尔特(Melville Y. Stewart),美国拜舍尔大学(Bethel University)哲学荣誉退休教授,2010年秋北京访问学者。他在明尼苏达大学获得哲学专业的博士学位,曾在牛津大学做博士后研究。其研究领域包括宗教哲学、形而上学、认识论等。至今,已发表论文数十篇,专著、编著十多部。
 
亲爱的《儒家邮报》:
 
下面是我对那些反对在曲阜建造天主教大教堂的人的反应。
 
这里,我想表达对那些反对在孔子的家乡建造耶教大教堂的人的看法。虽然我不是中国人,但儒家学者因为曲阜是孔子的家乡而反对在那里建造教堂之事还是令我感到吃惊。请允许我谈谈自己的看法,我想任何熟悉孔子教导的人,尤其是被他的《论语》所吸引的人也可能有类似观点。我尽可能把我的论证说得简洁、直奔主题。我觉得这些与《论语》中出现的儒家观点不谋而合。
 
首先,如果孔子还健在并且他正在考虑留下遗嘱和证言的话,我极其怀疑他会暗示家乡曲阜只属于他。实际上,我觉得孔子的反应可能正好相反,他会赞同把友谊作为桥梁,以积极的、和谐的方式把一个城市、一个省份或国家团结起来。而且,他显然追求美德,而其美德之一就包括对他人的爱。所以,他与基督教世界观的核心价值一样,那就是爱,虽然各自可能用不同的方式细腻地表达该价值的有趣细节。
 
其次,他的伦理学的核心原则是他以否定的形式表现出来的金科玉律“己所不欲,勿施於人”(12:2)这对他来说非常重要,因为在他这本短小精悍的著作中两次提到这个法则(第5章和第12章)。我觉得这个法则的意思是以你希望别人对待你的方式对待他人,你不愿意别人对你做的事,你也不要对别人做。我认为一个儒家信徒不会反对建造耶教大教堂,因为他也不愿意基督徒反对他在以基督教根源地闻名的城市建造儒家纪念碑。
 
第三,我们不知道反对为曲阜的万名基督徒建造大教堂怎么能保护孔子的正统思想。我是基督徒和哲学家,我对孔子有深厚的兴趣,我希望维护和推广对儒家传统的理解。我拥有这种兴趣不仅因为我赞同孔子的某些核心价值观和信念,而且因为我觉得了解孔子能够帮助人们理解中国文化中居于核心地位的历史传统。
 
第四也是最后一点,建造大教堂不仅能满足基督徒的需要还能推广曲阜,难道不是吗?因为那里将有两个文化中心,一是世界闻名的儒家圣地,一是计划中的雄伟的大教堂。在科隆(德国)、巴黎(法国)、罗马(意大利)、济南(中国)、华盛顿(特区)的大教堂不会对这些城市造成干扰,也不会转移人们对其他名胜的兴趣。增加新的文化景点能够丰富一个地方的文化。曲阜的儒家吸引力决不会削弱,因为儒家思想已经扎根于中国人的心灵深处及其中国的悠久历史中了。
 

Dear Rujia Youbao,
The following is my response to those who oppose the building of a cathedral in Qufu.
 
Response to the Chinese government’s plan to build a Gothic-like cathedral in Yuzhuang Village in Qufu, Melville Y. Stewart, Visiting Philosopher, Beijing, fall, 2010, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, Bethel University, U.S.A.
 
Here is my response to those who opposed the building of a church in Confucius’
 
hometown. While I am not Chinese, it comes as a surprise to me that Confucian scholars would oppose the building of a church in Qufu because it is the home of Confucius. Let me share what I would have expected from anyone familiar with and attracted to Confucius’ teachings, particularly his Analects. I’ll try to make my arguments brief and to the point. I think that they reflect Confucian ideas appearing in the Analects.
 
First, if Confucius were alive and were to consider leaving a last will and testament, I seriously doubt that he would even suggest that Qufu belonged singularly to him as his hometown. In fact, I see Confucius as responding just the opposite, as endorsing friendship as a way of building bridges, and as a way of bringing members of a city, or province, or country together in an affirmative and harmonious manner. Furthermore, he clearly pursued virtue, and among his list of virtues he included love toward others. So he shared a value central the Christian worldview, namely love, even though each might have nuanced the value in question in interestingly different ways.
 
Second, a central principle in his ethic is his version of the Golden Rule in the negative mode, “do not do unto others what you would not have done unto you”(己所不欲,勿施於人ji suo bu yü wu shi yü ren, 12:2). It was important enough for him to mention it twice in his short book (Book 5 and 12). I take it that this principle means treating others the way you would want to be treated, and not doing things you would not want done unto yourself. I would think that a Confucian would not reject the idea of building a Cathedral, since he/she would not in turn want a Christian to oppose his/her desire to build a Confucian monument in a some city known for its Christian origins.
 
Third, it isn’t clear how opposing the building of a Cathedral for 10,000 Christians in Qufu, protects the orthodoxy of Confucius. I am a Christian and a philosopher, and I have a very keen interest in Confucius, and I want to preserve and promote an understanding of the Confucian tradition. This interest is entertained not only because I agree with some of Confucius’ core beliefs and values, but because I think that understanding Confucius can help one understand a centrally important historical tradition in Chinese culture.
 
Fourth, and finally, wouldn’t the building of a Cathedral for Christians not only meet their need, but also enhance Qufu because there'd be two centers of cultural interest, a world-famous Confucian site, and with the new plan, a magnificent new Cathedral? The cathedrals in Cologne (Germany), in Paris (France), in Rome (Italy), in Jinan (China), and in Washington (D.C.), are not a distraction, or detraction from other points of interest in those cities. Adding new points of cultural interest enriches a culture. The Confucian attractions in Qufu will never diminish. Confucianism is too deeply embedded in the hearts of the Chinese people and its incredible history.
 
Melville Y. Stewart, Ph.D.
Visiting Philosopher, Beijing, 2010

 
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